AMSA's 2015 Annual Convention
Join Us Next Spring
in Washington, DC!

February 26 - March 1, 2015 

Global Health Equity

Health disparities exist both on a global level - with some countries unable to afford life-saving HIV treatment or even condoms - and within our nation's health care system, where we see persistent racial, ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in medical care and overall health.

What Others are Doing to Eliminate Health Disparities

Education may be one of the most important tools as part of an overall strategy to eliminate healthcare disparities. Healthcare providers and medical students alike should be aware that racial and ethnic disparities exist in healthcare, often despite providers' best intentions.

Medical student action

Healthcare providers

Given that stereotypes, bias, and clinical uncertainty may influence clinicians' diagnostic and treatment decisions, education may be one of the most important tools as part of an overall strategy to eliminate health disparities. Cross-cultural education programs have been developed to enhance health professionals' awareness of how cultural and social factors influence healthcare, while providing methods to obtain, negotiate, and manage this information clinically once it is obtained.

Notable sponsors and advocacy organizations

  • The National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NCMHD) promotes minority health and strives to lead, coordinate, support, and assess the NIH effort to reduce and ultimately eliminate health disparities. They envision an America in which all populations will have an equal opportunity to live long, healthy and productive lives. In accordance with this mission, they recently provided $74.5 million to various institutions, and HHS' Office of Minority Health awarded 65 grants totaling $10.5 million - $4.6 million of which is supported by funds from the Minority AIDS initiative - to support state-based efforts to eliminate health disparities.

    Much of this money will go toward research on minority health disparities, while some will go to community-based projects that will work to reduce "high-risk" behaviors such as tobacco use, physical inactivity or poor eating habits, as well as to improve healthcare access. Another portion will fund minority health offices in 14 states or go toward supporting the development of "effective and durable" service delivery among community organizations and health departments involved in HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention.
     
  • The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation is a key player in the fight against health disparities. Kaiser has a web page that serves as a clearinghouse for racial and ethnic minority issues. The Kaiser Network provides up-to-date news, references, web casts, and other information about efforts to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare access. In addition, kaiserEDU gives students and faculty access to data, literature, news and developments regarding major health issues, including the uninsured and health policy issues.  
     
  • The Centers for Disease Control's Office of Minority Health supports research and professional development, reports on the health status of racial and ethnic minorities in the U.S., and initiates strategic partnerships with governmental as well as national and regional organizations. In 1984, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services established a Task Force on Black and Minority Health to study the substantial inequities in the health of U.S. minorities and as a result published the seminal study, the 1985 Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Black and Minority Health, that led to the subsequent creation of this office.
     
  • Physicians for Human Rights has made racial and ethnic healthcare disparities one of its flagship issues. The research they have done and the resources they have created are some of the best on the web. The Right To Equal Treatment: A Report by the Panel on Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Medical Care presents evidence for the existence of systemic healthcare disparities. This is apparent even after normalizing for such possibly confounding variables as health insurance status, sex, age, income, education, hospital type, stage of disease and concomitant diseases. The report explores some possible causes and future actions to address this injustice. They also provide information on career development, student organizing, multi-media presentations, health and human rights. AMSA collaborates with PHR to encourage medical students to learn about and address health disparities.

Other organizations that have made eliminating health disparities a priority:

  • The American Medical Association (AMA) has established policies and programs and formed partnerships in an effort to reduce health disparities. 

Important reports and studies

  • In 1999, Congress directed the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) to develop the National Healthcare Disparity Report (NHDR) and requested that AHRQ annually track "prevailing disparities in healthcare delivery as they relate to racial factors and socioeconomic factors in priority populations." The NHDR provides a national overview of racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in health care in the general U.S. population and among "priority populations" which include both specific population groups as well as geographically-defined groups. The NHDR includes data and analysis on the following: low-income groups; racial and ethnic minority groups; women; children; the elderly; individuals with special healthcare needs; the disabled; people in need of long-term care; people requiring end-of-life care; and place of residence (e.g., rural communities). AHRQ also has a compendium of minority health research and reports on their website.  

Recommended Reading

Recommended Films

  • Miss Evers' Boys. Emmy Award-winning expos√© about the infamous Tuskegee Study, in which Nurse Evers describes a federally funded program to treat black syphilis patients

  • Unnatural Causes: Is Inequality Making Us Sick? is the acclaimed documentary series broadcast by PBS and used by thousands of organizations around the country to tackle the root causes of our alarming socio-economic and racial inequities in health.The 4-hour series crisscrosses the nation uncovering startling new findings that suggest there is much more to our health than bad habits, health care, or unlucky genes. The social circumstances in which we are born, live, and work can actually get under our skin and disrupt our physiology as much as germs and viruses.

  • The Deadliest Disease in America, is a documentary film that includes workshops developed to reduce barriers of access to health care. The Deadliest Disease in America is a thought-provoking film that, together with intensive workshops, highlights clearly the unequal treatment that individuals often receive based on color. This program is used to help community members and health care professionals understand how to identify racism in the health care system, and what to do about it. With both individuals and institutions ready to take responsibility for overcoming racism in our society, this is a crucial time to address racial and ethnic inequities in comprehensive health care reform.

Take Action Now to Eliminate Health Disparities

Here are some easy ways to engage your colleagues and learn more about health disparities. These sites contain ready-made speaker kits and power point presentations with handouts, background information, and question-answer guides. Give a class or lunchtime seminar on health disparities or social justice.

  • Help your Medicare patients and their families understand and sign up for the Medicare drug benefit. Information on who to call, where to apply and what kind of coverage is available is covered in this Medicare provider toolkit.
  • Take the Challenge! Student Action for Zero Health Disparities
    A slide show that outlines current health disparities with a closer look at the causes and student-driven solutions.
  • The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Henry K. Kaiser Family Foundation are currently undertaking an initiative to raise physician awareness about disparities in medical care, beginning with cardiac care. Why the Difference includes a speaker's kit with power point presentations focusing on health disparities and trust. It also addresses the Tuskegee experiments. Kaiser also has a site that serves as a clearinghouse for racial and ethnic minority issues.

Disparities

As the future doctors of America, AMSA believes that all physicians-in-training must take a proactive role in eliminating health disparities. Through self and peer education, innovative curriculum development and local and national policy changes we can make a significant impact to achieve this goal.

Fact Sheet

The Kaiser Family Foundation has published Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cardiac Care: The Weight of the Evidence in conjunction with a number of other institutions. This is a four-page summary of the report that captures the essence of their findings in bullets and on graphs.

Your Career & Working to Eliminate Disparities

AMSA's National Initiative on Disparities - Global AIDS

The Global HIV/AIDS Pandemic is the cause of the greatest health disparities in the world to date. The voice of health professionals is crucial to building a dedicated response to rid the world of AIDS. Find out more about the AIDS Advocacy Network.

AMSA Foundation American Health Care System Survey

In order to help direct medical education reforms that would enable medical schools to better address issues of health policy and disparities in health access, Jeff Huebner, M.D., AMSA's first Jack Rutledge Fellow, and the AMSA Foundation developed the first nationwide, randomized study of medical students' knowledge and attitudes about health policy, health care delivery, options for health care reform, and racial/ethnic disparities in health care access. Read the executive summary and final report. (2002)

Published Works

Wilson E; Grumbach K; Huebner J; Agrawal J; Bindman A. Medical Student, Physician, and Public Perceptions of Health Care Disparities. Fam Med. 2004 Nov-Dec;36(10):715-21.